Law Library Legal Dictionary – I

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Legal Definitions – I

Identity Theft – A crime where someone uses another person’s name, identification, address, Social Security number, credit cards or other private identity information without that person’s knowledge or permission to commit fraud or other crimes.

Illegal Immigrant – Any person who is unlawfully present within U.S. borders.

Immigrant Discrimination – Discrimination, including housing and employment discrimination, against someone because of his or her status as an immigrant.

Immigrant Visa – A type of visa that allows a foreign national to enter into the U.S. and eventually apply for lawful permanent residency.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) – The enforcement arm of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), where they investigate the immigration and naturalization of individuals present in the United States.

Immigration Laws – An area of law that governs immigration and naturalization. See also: Divorce and Immigration, What Is Immigration Court?

Imperfect Title – A property title that is defective and does not convey full legal transfer of a parcel of land or real estate.

Implied Covenant Laws – An agreement that isn’t specifically stated in the contract terms, but is simply assumed to be true by both or all parties entering into the contract.

Implied Warranty of Habitability – A warranty implied by law in all residential leases that the premises are fit and habitable for human habitation and that the premises will remain fit and habitable throughout the duration of the lease.

Implied Warranty of Suitability – A warranty implied by law in commercial leases that the premises are suitable for the purpose of the lease. Not every state has recognized this warranty.

In Vitro Fertilization Discrimination – Discrimination by an employer against an employee who has had or is having an in vitro fertilization performed. Such discrimination is prohibited by law under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act.

Inadmissibility in Immigration – The ineligibility of an alien to enter into the United States.

Incest – Sexual relations with a close family member, such as a first cousin. It is normally classified as a sex crime.

Income Tax – A tax on the money people earn.

Indemnification – A type of agreement wherein one party agrees to pay for the cost of possible damage, loss, or injury caused by another person.

Inhalants – A broad term given to the number of household chemicals that can be abused by inhaling for an intoxicating effect. Although the possession and sale of them to adults is not illegal, there are several laws restricting minors from purchasing them.

Inheritance – A person’s possessions or estate that others receive upon the death of that person.

Injunction – A court order requiring someone to do something or forbidding some act. It is given as an equitable remedy.

Innocent Misrepresentation – A misrepresentation made by someone who had reasonable grounds for believing that his misrepresentation was true.

Innocent Spouse Defense – A defense that discharges an “innocent” spouse of unfair liabilities with regard to the debts that their spouse has incurred during the period of the marriage.

Insanity Defense – A criminal defense where if defendant was legally insane at the time the crime took place, he will be completely excused from liability.

Insider Trading – A situation in which corporate insiders, such as officers or directors of the corporation, buy and sell stock within the corporation. It is illegal if a corporate insider uses unpublished corporate information to make a profit by selling or buying corporate securities.

Installment Contract – A particular type of contract in which the payments, deliveries of goods, or providing of services are made in a series (“installments”), rather than all at once.

Insurance Bad Faith – The situation in which an insurance company withholds policy benefits from beneficiaries without just cause.

Insurance Fraud – Fraud that involves an individual making misrepresentations or purposely making an omission of material facts to an insurance company for the purpose of defrauding the insurance company. Common insurance fraud activities include exaggerated estimates of damage, under-reporting important information, and making false claims.

Intellectual Property Law – An area of law governing intellectual property and the business transactions that involve this type of property. See also: Copyright Law, Patents, Trademark Lawyers, Trade Secrets Lawyers

Intentional Injuries – Injuries that were intentionally inflicted by the perpetrator, including injuries resulting from intentional infliction of emotional distress and assault.

Inter Vivos Trust – A type of trust that involves property being distributed to a beneficiary while the estate holder is still alive.

International Court of Justice – The principal judicial court of the United Nations.

International Taxes – Taxes that must be paid by United States citizens on the income they receive in foreign countries, and taxes that must be paid by foreign nationals and foreign corporations on the income they receive in the United States.

Internet Privacy Act – A state law that focuses on maintaining the confidentiality of Internet service provider subscriber information. Only some states have Internet privacy acts.

Interrogation – The direct questioning of a person under conditions that are partly or fully controlled by the questioner. An interrogation that happens while the person is in police custody is called custodial interrogation, while an interrogation that happens while the person is not in police custody is normally referred to as an interview.

Intervening Cause – A defense to a negligence claim. If an event occurs following a defendant’s act that is unforeseeable and causes an injury, this may cut off the liability for the defendant’s act.

Intestacy – Refers to a person dying without leaving a will. As such, that person’s estate will be distributed pursuant to the state’s intestacy laws.

Investment Dispute – A disagreement over financial investments such as stocks, bonds, commodities, trusts, and corporate assets. Such a dispute often results in a lawsuit because this type of dispute usually involves complex financial law.

Involuntary Manslaughter – A type of unintentional manslaughter. It generally includes any homicide that occurs without the defendant intending for it to happen, occurs during the commission of a non-felony crime (such as misdemeanor theft), or results from criminal negligence.

IRA Inheritor’s Trust – A type of trust through which IRA holders leave their IRA accounts to their heirs.

IRS Collection Process – A process enacted by the IRS against people who have failed to pay taxes that they owe to ensure that their tax debt is paid.

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Last Modified: 04-5-2022 08:23 AM UTC